BMW 3 series E30
Since 1983-1994 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. The maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. The engine
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. An exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. A running gear
+ 12. A body
+ 13. An electric equipment
- 14. A good advice
14.2. Changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or a mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. A rule 35
14.8. A choice of the second-hand car
14.9. Engine oils
14.10. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
14.11. Occurrence in deposit oil
14.12. Whether it is possible to mix import oils?
14.13. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.14. It is more likely live, than it is dead …
14.15. It is not got - a good advice
14.16. Visit to car-care centre
14.17. A gear belt for a mechanism drive газораспределения
14.18. Deterioration of pistons
14.20. Bearings of engines
14.21. Engine pollution
14.22. As the conditioner works and what to do, if it has failed
14.23. The conditioner: not only "pluses", but also "minuses"
14.24. Rules of service of the conditioner
14.25. It is not necessary to stir antifreeze with antifreeze …
14.26. That it is necessary to know at purchase of the air filter
14.27. An engine overheat
14.28. That it is necessary to know to the owner of the car with инжекторным the engine
14.29. The accumulator
14.30. Possible malfunctions of the storage battery
14.31. What to do with the failed generator
14.32. The belt is guilty, and we blame the generator
14.33. The catalyst
14.34. Three in one - or how to save the catalyst
14.36. Features of operation of brake system
14.37. Malfunctions of brake system
14.38. Brake liquids
14.39. АБС: a natural choice
14.40. Wheel disks
14.41. We update wheel disks
14.42. The scheme of marks of an automobile tyre
14.43. Metal corrosion
14.44. An automake-up
14.45. What creaks?
14.46. The hatch
14.47. A safety pillow: troubles or pleasures?
14.48. We fit well?
14.49. Anticreeping "immunodeficiency"
14.50. Why headlights grow dull
14.52. About correct adjustment of headlights
14.53. The electric motor
14.54. From change of places "composed" varies nothing?
What is the accumulator?
The accumulator is a device for energy storage in the chemical form which can be used as an electricity.
The accumulator works thanks to that two various metals, being in an acid solution, develop an electricity.
The basic indicators of accumulators
Some important facts about accumulators which will help you are more low mentioned and to your buyers correctly to choose the accumulator for the car.
Аккмулятор 100 % possess efficiency at 27 ° S.Pri-18 ° about efficiency of the same аккмулятора falls to 40 %. Now to start the engine, it is necessary to have more than twice more energy, than it was necessary at 27 ° for S.Podcherknite this important factor to your clients. Specify in necessity big аккмуляторов, especially in cold climates.
Starting capacity (starting amperes) shows ability of the accumulator to start the car in the conditions of very cold weather. It shows quantity of amperes which develops the accumulator within 30 seconds at-18 ° With without a power failure more low 7,2 volt (a minimum level demanded for reliable start). The above this indicator, the more starting capacity of the accumulator.
Reserve capacity shows extent of time in minutes during which the accumulator provides 25 amperes at 27 ° with S.Etot the factor represents time during which the accumulator ensures functioning of all auxiliary devices in the car at night and in the conditions of bad weather at the faulty generator of a charge.
Functioning in the conditions of cold weather
In winter conditions at-18 ° With and more low the accumulator it will be bad to be charged in connection with increase of internal resistance. At short trips in the winter the energy spent by the accumulator on start-up, is not compensated. As a result the accumulator works on deterioration, is constantly discharged and eventually refuses.
In summer months after long trips the engine strongly heats up, and often happens that it is difficult for starting anew. Such "hot starts" sometimes demand as much capacity, how many and at cold weather, or it is more. It especially extends on высококомпрессионные engines with the big working volume and cars with conditioners. It once again underlines importance of a correct choice of the accumulator according to the car engine.
How correctly to choose аккмулятор?
Probably, at each motorist there comes such moment when to potter further with the old storage battery begins too хлопотно. Especially if on a court yard winter also there are bitter colds. Constant problems with engine start, infinite "house" additional charges and fear that the showered active weight at the most inappropriate moment will close plates then from any crossroads you will drag home on a tow. The conclusion arises: the new accumulator is necessary. But what?
All стартерные storage batteries share on three categories: served, or maintainable; малообслуживаемые; the unattended.
Served accumulators for the present meet on sale though about ten years ago they made practically overwhelming majority. Now they are made some by the Russian factories moreover in the several countries were соцлагеря. They are easy for learning on эбонитовому to the case and black mastic which is filled in from above. Such accumulator gives the chance to replace the block of plates one or several банок if between plates there was a short circuit. But the overwhelming majority in it will not be engaged. Besides more expensive in manufacture эбонитовый the case less other, than plastic, and at blow breaks up. Mastic too has an essential lack – in due course from a dirt and temperature drops it loses the изоляционные properties, paternal the accumulator starts to be discharged spontaneously very quickly.
The owner of the unattended accumulator is simply deprived possibility something to make with it: on a cover of such battery there are no apertures and jellied stoppers. These are the special accumulators intended for defined (read – ideal) service conditions with a soft climate and the debugged service. They very expensive also approach for use not on all cars.
The majority of automobile accumulators let out all over the world is малообслуживаемыми. They have no such rigid restrictions in operation and are widely presented in the market, from rather cheap and simple to expensive, qualitative and literally larded by modern technologies.
Let's admit, you have decided to buy the accumulator, but where also what? At first – where. Is better to go to solid firm where to you will quickly pick up that is necessary. Now – what. We will not advise something concrete, we will make only some recommendations.
The prestige and popularity of any mark of accumulators have crucial importance at purchase, but it is necessary to consider and some technical moments. Certainly, the chemical compound of plates or technology of their manufacturing are hardly known to the seller. And whether it is necessary it is to the buyer? It is better to pay attention that it is possible to see most. For example, the packaged plates (each plate is packed into a microporous envelope-separator) which prevent short circuit between them owing to осыпания active weight and accordingly prolong term of "life" of the accumulator. Such packages are well visible if to open a jellied stopper. Pay attention and to stoppers. It is known that at gymnastics of the accumulator water from electrolit is evaporated and at электролизе decays on hydrogen and oxygen.
That the accumulator has not blown up, in stoppers do sideways or from above a small aperture for an exit of gases. In the most simple (and the cheapest) accumulators do simply small aperture which can quickly be hammered by a dirt. In more expensive stoppers are made like the valve which is not giving to electrolit to be splashed out, with a cavity for конценсации steams. Is better, if stoppers have no apertures, and in a battery cover there is a system of cavities for water condensation, and also uniform газоотводный the channel, as in unattended accumulators.
Maloobsluzhivaemye accumulators are delivered by manufacturers сухозаряженными (as the majority served) or filled in with electrolit at factory. If you buy the accumulator for the future it is better to buy сухозаряженный: at it the big period of storage. To result them in a working condition, it is necessary to fill in electrolit. Filled in at factory аккмуляторы are already ready to work. The electrolit for them prepares experts from high-quality components and contains much (sometimes more than twenty) the additives interfering сульфатации, осыпанию active weight, etc. It is necessary to tell that on sale there were the special modifiers ostensibly containing such additives, but they do not cause trust. There is one more advantage at the filled in accumulators. Before to get to a trading network, them subject to special gymnastics with the control of parametres on special equipment. Thus to reveal poor-quality batteries it is much easier.
Probably, the most important, on what the buyer should pay attention, are characteristics of the accumulator. Their three. The first – номанальное pressure, it at all batteries identical, and it is impossible to be mistaken. At purchase it is desirable to check up the accumulator a loading plug. The second – the capacity measured in amperes/hours (A/h), means, roughly speaking, the quantity of the electric power stored in the accumulator. On capacity depends, as it is long possible to twist a starter the engine, is more exact – how many it is possible to make attempts to start the engine. The accumulator price is almost directly proportional to its capacity. And the third characteristic – a starting current (it is measured in amperes.), i.e. A current submitted on a starter during start-up. On its accumulators can specify on four different systems: GOST (on domestic), EN (the standard of Uniform Europe), SAE (the American standard) and DIN. Last, German standard, is closest to ours STATE THAT and on the majority of the European batteries is put "by default", i.e. When the standard system is not specified. The it is more, the faster and with большей force the starter will turn the engine.
It is better, if you buy the accumulator with those characteristics which are specified in the maintenance instruction of your car: so it will serve to you longer at the minimum expenses. It is possible to save and buy the accumulator of smaller capacity, but it will serve you less than usual term and it is bad to cope with winter start. Having bought the battery even ненамного большей capacities, you will not win in service life since constant недозаряд the accumulator will lead сульфатации plates, and will lose in money. To take a great interest in the raised starting current also does not follow: will burn a starter. Replace oil in the engine is better, and problems with start will not be.
Lately the country market is overflowed by the poor-quality goods and fakes. Accumulators are not an exception. There are some signs on which it is possible with sufficient accuracy to distinguish the original from a fake. The first and, perhaps, the main thing: on the accumulator the country-manufacturer and letting out factory should be necessarily specified, it is better if with the address. The second – manufacturing date that is very important, if the accumulator filled in should be specified. Characteristics sheet, and here instruction presence should be applied on each battery it is unessential. It is connected by that in the West accumulators almost do not sell at retail, they are established by experts at service stations. The third – the qualitative accumulator is inconceivable without the qualitative case, good stoppers and smooth выводных the plugs quite often greased with technical protective greasing from oxidation and covered from above with colour plastic caps.
The accumulator main task is giving of a current for engine start. The current which is required for проворачивания the cold engine differs from the car to the car. It depends on size of a piston stroke and diameter, quantity of cylinders, a parity прокручивания the engine / a starter, resistance of a chain, temperatures, viscosity of oil of the engine and loading of auxiliary devices. The four-cylinder engine can demand the same size of a current of start as well as eight-cylinder with the big working volume. When the original storage equipment steals up to the car all these factors are considered.
The second appointment аккмуляторной batteries is completion of loading requirements of the car when they exceed possibility зарядной systems on supply by energy. The zarjadnaja system maintains electric loading under normal conditions movements. Nevertheless, if the engine is idling, the battery can fill a part of energy for auxiliary devices. It takes place at driving on a city at constant stops and movement renewal at normal loading of auxiliary devices. The storage battery should fill electric loading of the car at refusal зарядной systems.
At replacement of the automobile accumulator apply equivalent to the original storage battery. Apply the storage battery большей capacities if it is necessary больший reliability factor.
The third appointment of the storage battery is action as a voltage stabilizer in зарядной to system. From time to time in electric system very high transitive pressure are developed. It can take place at short circuit or chain disconnection, etc. The storage battery partially absorbs and considerably smoothes these peak pressure and protects semi-conductor components from failure.
Protect the accumulator!
The more coldly in the street – the more than problems at drivers. One of the main things – as on a frost to start the engine. Here again the accumulator first of all makes itself felt. On it in a frost the greatest loading falls: start of the engine demands much more the big efforts. That the starter has turned коленвал the cold engine, the storage battery needs to give much more energy. Thus do not forget that restoration of working capacity of the accumulator occurs not instantly, and after a while: the electrolit which have thickened on a cold slowly gets in plates. For this reason repeated attempt of start of the engine recommend to make only in some minutes. Besides on a frost the battery at starter work is discharged very quickly.
Some drivers, trying to start up "the frozen" engine, continuously twist a starter over and over again. As a result of this violence the accumulator very quickly "сдыхает" – definitively and irrevocably: battery plates, without maintaining excessive loadings, start to be jarred on and showered.
Probably, there is no need to say about necessity of regular care of the accumulator, that is necessary not less often than once a week to check electrolit level in banks and if necessary to add дистилированную water. If the accumulator unattended – cares is less. But all the same it is necessary to give attention – periodically it is necessary to check a tension приводного a belt, and at first signs of decrease in capacity the accumulator is necessary for recharging.
And now it will be a question of how faster and least without serious consequences for the accumulator to start up the engine on a frost.
At first – obvious. In due time replace oil with the winter. Better – on import, for we (including packed up) quite often has unpleasant feature to turn on a frost to kissel or at all to freeze. How such oil will grease engine details, with it it is necessary to the accumulator very hardly and its days will be are considered.
The second – candles. For the winter it is better to establish the new. But it is the theory, and in practice such factors, as "экономность" or absence of these in due time near at hand often come into force. For, while the engine is started up normally, many at all do not recollect that in the engine there are candles... If candles nevertheless old – establish in them a necessary backlash which constantly increases because of обгорания electrodes. It is better to make it in good time, differently it is necessary to be picked when it is necessary to go. As a last resort, if the engine is not started up, the backlash can be established less recommended, but in this case electrodes will burn even faster.
In strong frosts before including a starter, "warm up" the accumulator – include on pair minutes a headlight. Also do not try to get the engine at once. At first several short inclusions of a starter send on errands pistons in cylinders slightly to disperse the thickened oil. And already after that try to start it. If the engine was not started from the first attempt, do not switch off at once a starter. The most optimum mode of start-up of the engine – a series of 10-15 second attempts with three-minute breaks.
Typical loadings of the passenger car (in amperes)