BMW 3 series E30
Since 1983-1994 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. The maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. The engine
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. An exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. A running gear
+ 12. A body
+ 13. An electric equipment
- 14. A good advice
14.2. Changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or a mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. A rule 35
14.8. A choice of the second-hand car
14.9. Engine oils
14.10. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
14.11. Occurrence in deposit oil
14.12. Whether it is possible to mix import oils?
14.13. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.14. It is more likely live, than it is dead …
14.15. It is not got - a good advice
14.16. Visit to car-care centre
14.17. A gear belt for a mechanism drive газораспределения
14.18. Deterioration of pistons
14.20. Bearings of engines
14.21. Engine pollution
14.22. As the conditioner works and what to do, if it has failed
14.23. The conditioner: not only "pluses", but also "minuses"
14.24. Rules of service of the conditioner
14.25. It is not necessary to stir antifreeze with antifreeze …
14.26. That it is necessary to know at purchase of the air filter
14.27. An engine overheat
14.28. That it is necessary to know to the owner of the car with инжекторным the engine
14.29. The accumulator
14.30. Possible malfunctions of the storage battery
14.31. What to do with the failed generator
14.32. The belt is guilty, and we blame the generator
14.33. The catalyst
14.34. Three in one - or how to save the catalyst
14.36. Features of operation of brake system
14.37. Malfunctions of brake system
14.38. Brake liquids
14.39. АБС: a natural choice
14.40. Wheel disks
14.41. We update wheel disks
14.42. The scheme of marks of an automobile tyre
14.43. Metal corrosion
14.44. An automake-up
14.45. What creaks?
14.46. The hatch
14.47. A safety pillow: troubles or pleasures?
14.48. We fit well?
14.49. Anticreeping "immunodeficiency"
14.50. Why headlights grow dull
14.52. About correct adjustment of headlights
14.53. The electric motor
14.54. From change of places "composed" varies nothing?
14.8. A choice of the second-hand car
You would not get what car – be ready to spend repair-preventive works to return to it former молодось, to make is attractive-individual, and also to adapt for practical operation, not to distract then from the daily cares. Similar works we will divide into some stages.
Do not trust the eyes
The first – estimate a technical condition of the car: that for "animal" you have driven under a window. Begin with the engine and a running gear: after all at purchase you, probably, have given to a body a lot of attention and were convinced that it quite good. Rotten and worn out difficultly to give out for good how the seller tried. But many domestic knots quite often leave good impression only thanking... Modern auto chemical goods – then not any expert straight off опеределит that to what. For example, in mercilessly smoking and knocking motor have filled in the complex of additives almost bringing to nothing visible symptoms of deterioration. However, its action will suffice on 300–1000 km... In system of cooling leaking before sale there can be a lot of hermetic or even горчицы. There are medicines and for "the killed" accumulator. If from a transmission or a reducer leaked oil, there, present, have filled in a wonderful liquid and. . No, oil will not cease to exude, but, even when it will flow out everything, you will not notice it – transfers will join still easily, and the reducer will not hoot (month two, before full death).
Think, all aforesaid – a unique case? At all is not present. The car with such "set" needs to be bought under the announcement, and furthermore, on a car market. Thus the body at it can be in rather good condition, and the salon – to be simply magnificent... And so, that, having gone for the first time on such beauty for a city, back not to come back an electric train, it is better to carry out diagnostics of all knots in the first days.
Whether the motor is healthy
Let's begin with the engine. Its warming up, we fill in a liquid for five-minute washing of system of greasing. We merge oil, we remove the filter. Having established new (it is possible cheap), we fill in domestic промывочное oil and half an hour we drive the motor on single turns. If merged after that black, operation it is possible to repeat oil (without changing the filter) as packing is calculated on two times. The sound of the working motor should remain same what was before your manipulations. If there was a reknock and клацание in a block head, that, having filled in engine oil (and once again having changed the filter, already on road import), поезжайте under the own steam on HUNDRED – to regulate valves and to tighten a chain. But if in the bottom part of the engine the tractor sounds changing the intensity depending on turns are distributed, – has put rubbish. Stop the engine and, without filling in some fresh oil, go on a tow to mechanics for survey radical and шатунных loose leaves.
And your motor has not published any extraneous sounds? Perfectly – then wash up it and, dry having wiped, go to a trial trip. In a way fix any uncharacteristic sounds and the noise going from under a cowl, and also (subjectively) capacity at purchase. These indicators of "health" of the motor should not change in comparison with a trial trip at purchase. Kilometres through hundred examine the engine – whether there is no oil leak. If is, that, probably, the ventilation hose картера is littered or that is worse, it is necessary to change linings, epiploons. And suddenly in some days after washing from the muffler there was a blue smoke? Prepare for replacement маслосъемных caps as you, possibly, "have washed up" противодымную an additive... For check remove a ventilation hose картера – from it hardly appreciable smoke is admissible. If the whitish smoke brings down clubs, and turns have increased – replacement маслосъемные demand a ring. Measure a compression to estimate – to change only rings or to do расточку cylinders with audit of loose leaves, and also cranked and distributive shaft.
We wish, that your motor has not shown any of similar symptoms – then there are bases for confidence that it will not disturb the owner of 30-40 thousand kilometres, and even it is more.
With cooling system arrive similarly lubricant: in a radiator of the heated-up engine fill in промывочную a liquid, and then, погоняв the motor, pour out all "slops" without the rest. Then fill in pure water and, again having started up the motor, attentively observe of a radiator, hoses, the heater crane. On water it is possible even to do a bit of travelling some days (in the summer, certainly!) and if level in a broad tank has not gone down, safely to fill in "Antifreeze".
The ignition system, most likely, should not present surprises: before sale to it, and also to the carburettor give special attention. After all the car should be started up from a half-turn and be dispersed quickly, without failures – differently who will buy it?! And therefore change candles, high-voltage wires and the air filter (in the author's opinion, it it is better import) – if the former owner has not made it.
The electric equipment less all is subject to deterioration, and so, and to "experiments" of the seller. Your problem – to check up serviceability of all lighting devices, it is obligatory to change "жучки" for regular safety locks moreover to check up pressure in an onboard network (13,6-14,5).
To brakes – attention special
We pass to brake system. For the sake of its serviceability it is not necessary to feel sorry money, as for it (along with a steering) – sacred: your life and safety of others depends on serviceability of brakes. Having removed stoppers, glance in tanks of hydrodrives of brakes and coupling (if its drive not тросовый) – through a liquid the tank bottom should be looked through. Its Dark brown colour specifies in necessity of immediate replacement, and happens that with the old polluted liquid of a brake leak, and after good washing of system and pouring fresh to flow stops. Further, serially having removed wheels and brake drums (behind), examine brake колодки which deterioration should be uniform and not exceed half admissible, otherwise колодки replace. Then check action of brakes on deserted highway, watching that at braking of any intensity the car did not withdraw aside, and also after sharp braking since the speed of 40-60 km/h all four wheels were blocked, having left a black and uniform trace on asphalt (it, naturally, does not concern cars with АБС). And, at last, regularly supervise liquid level in tanks which should remain to constants, and in a luggage carrier hold a small bottle "тормозухи".
Further the viewing hole or a platform is required. Having warmed up the car, replace oil in a transmission and the back bridge. Then study running gear knots, paying attention to integrity пыльников of steering draughts, spherical support, SHRUS. Ask the assistant vigorously повращать a wheel on a small corner and check up люфт in joints of a steering trapeze. At big люфте replace draughts it it is simple and inexpensive, and the role of a serviceable trapeze in safety and stability of management is difficult for overestimating! More under car it nothing you.
"But allow, – the reader will exclaim, – and if I see holes in the bottom, the burst levers, the burnt through muffler, the longeron which has departed from a body..." Well, excuse! I meant that the bottom of this car you saw the second, instead of for the first time. That is the car at purchase examined and investigated carefully (though, can, and on-diletantski), instead of lodge simply in salon and have struck on hands. In a word, it was necessary to look earlier!
Do not feel sorry some shampoo
Now we will start the second stage which purpose – to give to your "swallow" individual shape, and also to try to "erase" from memory of the car (and yours too) memoirs that to you already used it. In the clear afternoon carefully wash up it outside autoshampoo, in hard-to-reach spots using the soaped brush-flejts. If the chromeplated details have grown dull or on them rusty stains, it doesn't matter have acted. The amazed places plentifully rub кашицей from baking soda by means of a tooth-brush. It is a little labour-consuming, but result excellent! It is quite good to change faded рассеиватели back lanterns and sidelights; there are copecks, and the effect is available. Wheel disks (for certain after all rusty) put on plastic caps. In summary rub a body полиролем and pass in salon.
Sit down on a back seat with a water bucket, a laundry soap, a rag and a small brush for shaving or a brush. Then soap a back part of a ceiling a small brush and, having waited a little, collect soap strongly wrung out rag. After procedure repetition move forward and do the same with other part of a ceiling. Similar operation spend with an upholstery of doors.
Glasses from within wipe a liquid for washing of windows. Old covers of seats are better for throwing out, as a last resort – it is good to wash and densely to pull anew. On a back shelf (in sedans) lay a piece ковролина under colour of covers and put the first-aid set, preliminary having touched its contents. The panel of devices ("торпедо") and a wheel with the switch wipe spirit and rub with a sponge-polirolem "555". Having removed rubber rugs (they need to be washed up separately), carefully vacuum a synthetic carpet, in an ideal – washing vacuum cleaner. If in salon smoked, and you do not gather, hang up освежитель air. If necessary establish new rear-view mirrors – two lateral and, the magnifying size, – in salon. Put things in order in a luggage carrier and... Happy journey!